Friday, August 31, 2012

Hannah watt - 42467357

Media Convergence Essay
Hannah Watt – 42467357

Discuss the phenomenon of digital media convergence in relation to Music Video Online.
An art made by the people, and for the people, as a happiness to the maker and the user. That is the only real art there is, the only art, which will be an instrument to the progress of the world, and not a hindrance - William Morris, The Art of the People, 1879.

In today’s modern world, expansive technological innovations and advancements have facilitated the convergence of old and new media platforms, which in turn has allowed for the streaming of online music videos. Media convergence “is the process whereby new technologies are accommodated by existing media and communication industries and cultures” (Dwyer, 2010). The Internet and more recently, smart phone devices have been some of the largest contributors to the media convergence phenomenon; allowing a vast range of media platforms such as print, video and audio to become almost instantaneously accessible from nearly anywhere in the world; furthermore completely changing the way in which we, as an audience, absorb information.

As individuals, we are able to distribute media content through social and participatory sites, in turn exposing and advertising the artist and creator of the music video. The aptitude to share numerous video links allows people to enjoy similar music tastes as well as being able to engage in poly-platform infer structure.
Viewing music videos via the television was once in itself a part of ordinary life. Tuning into programs such as ‘Video Hits’, ‘MTV’ and ‘Count Down’ on a Saturday morning provided access to the latest music videos for audiences, with uninterrupted content in promotion of musicians and artists. As music videos became less profitable and are now accessed online by consumers, programs such as ‘Rage’ responded to the technological trends and convergences, creating a smart phone application and webpage that shared a connection with participatory and social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter.

Media industries are constantly changing structurally due to emerging trends and technological advancements.
The merging of Google and YouTube in 2006 is a palpable example of new world media convergence and is now listing YouTube as a “popular cultural phenomenon…with the ability to facilitate participatory cultures” (Burgess, 2009). This collaboration has greatly impacted the music industry through millions of people gaining access to online music videos, in turn simultaneously advertising and promoting music artists. 
YouTube is a highly recognisable online music video search engine due to its ‘informal’ database for all types of content such as television previews, amateur/home videos and music videos. It allows users to upload clips where anyone can view, rate, comment and share content, through web pages such as Facebook, Twitter and Blogger. As a result of this reign of accessibility, has become the second most popular site on the Internet and to this day, is one of the largest examples of online media convergence.

As a result of media convergence and societal trends, You Tube has now become a portable application through smart phones – “The always on, always connected and always with us smart device facilitates a new vernacular of the now” (Vickers, 2012); making music videos easily accessible to consumers. Audiences are “empowered by these new technologies” (Jenkins, 2006) and are able to re-appropriate and redistribute content in the form of recordings, amateur videos or concert footage that converge online through network infrastructure. Meikle and Young suggest that ‘the significant characteristic of contemporary media [such as YouTube] is not just that they are digital but that they are also networked, enabling complex relationships of two-way communication” (2012).

Beyonce - Single Ladies (original)

Re-appropriation of original music video created by a YouTube user

Above: example of the features of YouTube e.g. appropriation 

With the phenomenon of the new, come new problems arising from unprecedented territory. You Tube features unauthorized hyperlinks for music videos as well as appropriations and parodies of music videos created by its users. Problems that may come about are in alignment with copyright laws where owners of videos have the right of publication in return, offering music videos, moreover benefiting the artist in that they are able to be in control of profitable revenue and how the video content may be distributed. “By exploring a model of participation we have moved away from the authorship of a single person towards mass authorship and a collaborative montage vision, of not just technology but creativity” (Vickers, 2012).

YouTube’s dependency lies in the hands of mainstream media sources as its foundation is formed by new content being continuously uploaded, in order to remain up to date and most importantly, to remain within the current stream. Live broadcasts such as celebrity television appearances and concerts are uploaded almost instantaneously to the YouTube page; It is thus so that for the music industry to be targeting mass audiences, the prominent media platform to access music videos will, in the future, remain as Television. The downside to this climate is that participatory culture may be seen as a threat to commercial media and music producers, who desire primary control over their intellectual property. However, on the contrary, consumers may also be optimistic about promoting the work of music artists and bringing them into mainstream media and popularity.

Over the course of the past decade, the media landscape has changed exponentially with the development of the Internet, in turn ensuring and establishing the infrastructures for the current media convergent environment.  As discussed by Hilderbrand, it is evident that through the technological advancements of programs such as the Internet, Google and YouTube, expectations for availability and accessibility have been greatly accelerated (2007) within society creating a higher demand for a more expansive range of content and at a faster rate.
As the process of media convergence continues, we will come to see a vast range of improvements and advancements within the world of online music videos. As the media convergent environment expands, develops and becomes more independent, we will come to see vast changes within the online music video industry. The question left to ask is that as these changes occur, who will profit and how will industries, including the music industry remain profitable?

Reference List

Burgess J, Green J (2009) ‘YouTube: Online Video and Participatory Culture’, Polity Press.
Dwyer T (2010) ‘Media Convergence’, McGraw Hill, Berkshire, Pp. 1-23

Hilderbrand L (2007) ‘YouTube: Where Cultural Memory and Copyright Converge’ in Film Quarterly, Vol. 61, Pp. 48-57

Jenkins H (2006) ‘Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide’, New York, University Press, Pp. 1-24

Meikle, G, and Young, S (2012) Media Convergence: Networked Digital Media in Everyday Life, Palgrave Macmillan.
Vickers, R (2012) “Convergence Media, Participation Culture and the Digital Vernacular: Towards the Democratization of Documentary”,

Assignment One: Music Video

MAS110: An Introduction to Digital Media Production

Digital media convergence: Online Music Video

Student Number: 42878888


Digital media convergence can be defined as, “the coming together of media technologies for media consumption, production, and distribution, and how this leads to new forms and patterns of media use”[1]. Convergence is known to be “more than a corporate branding opportunity, representing reconfiguration of media power and a reshaping of media aesthetics and economics[2].”

Due to the fact that analogue data can only exist on physical media and replications are degraded[3], the world in terms of convergence has come a long way with digital media now being perfectly replicable. Once the world was bound to traditional analogue media and limited to what it could provide. For example individuals used to have to wait for a hard copy of the local newspaper to be thrown on the lawn and delivered, but now news is accessible online 24/7; and there is no need to wait. Newspapers are also available from other countries, not just from an individual’s local region, as well as news from all over the world being up to date online for anyone to read digitally. Like Henry Jenkins states of the black box fallacy, “history teaches us as individuals that old media never die; they don’t even necessarily fade away, what dies are simply the tools we use to access media content[4].” Reinforcing Jenkins statement, there are many media forms that have been replaced. For example the Apple iPhone has replaced many media forms including the iPod, GPS, physical forms of alarm clocks, the digital camera, the laptop and even gaming devices[5], through the abundance of media forms it offers. We now question the concept and idea of music television. It is arguable if music television even ‘exists’ in a sense anymore. The reason for stating this is because as technology evolves, media forms are replaced like Jenkins states, music television being one of them.

In reality music television still exists and definitely hasn’t faded away as music videos are still very abundant, however the tool of television used to access it has evidently gone. YouTube has now become renowned for music videos with VEVO, a tool which music artists use to portray their videos on YouTube.  For example the video attached is from Australian musician, Guy Sebastian from his Vevo channel with his number one song on the iTunes chart, “Battle Scars[6].” There is no such concept as waiting to watch a music video on a charts show on television anymore or waiting through the advertisements to see what music video is number one. Instead iTunes and YouTube offer individuals the convenience of watching music videos 24/7 along with parodies of music videos and a broad range of other versions, such as the acoustic version of a song or similar songs by different artists, something a music television chart show does not offer.

Music video, meaning music and image together on a screen[7] has had a long history and another implication affecting music television is that it is not being economically invested into. Due to the lack of investment there is no place for it to be shown on television.[8] One real life example of digital media convergence affecting music television is the Australian music television chart show Rage. Although Rage is still aired on television, it has also evolved and really isn’t just ‘music television.’ For example it is accessible on mobile, internet and DVD[9]. Another example is the Channel V iTunes music countdown list. This is still music television; however it has collaborated with an online application, the Apple iTunes countdown to portray the top music on the charts to show on television. Channel V also shows viewers popular and newly released music videos by showing the song as a YouTube video on their website[10]. In this sense, television has in fact collaborated with the internet to help it broadcast music television.  Like Rage, Channel V is not just music television either; it has its own website[11], YouTube channel, and Facebook and Twitter page to interact with viewers so they can meet their wants in the world of music. As stated in Vincent Millers journal article, “we as individuals are seeing that the internet has become as much about interaction as it is about accessing information[12].” Reinforcing this statement, music television channels have made sure this is most definitely accurate.

Millers also states that we as individuals are in “an environment that obliges us to write, speak, link and text others on an almost continual basis to maintain a sense of connection to a social network while remaining fairly oblivious to the consumption and production of information[13].”  Music television is not what it used to be in the 1980’s as evidently now viewers are able to interact and request with the show, not just view music video in its original context. Online music video has and will continually transform the way we know the landscape of technology and the world of music television. Music video television has a very long history dating as far back as 1987, when Rage was first aired[14]. It is evident that since then that digital media convergence has played a significant part and had an effect in individual’s lives, altering the way we know and use technology. Like Henry Jenkins states “history teaches us as individuals that old media never die; they don’t even necessarily fade away, what dies are simply the tools we use to access media content[15]”, and music television is the epitome of a prime example of this fact.




Reference List:


Australian music television show ‘Rage’ homepage: Accessed: 23/08/12

Business Insider: “What has replaced my iPhone.” Accessed: 21/08/12

Jenkins, H, 2006, Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide, NY University Press

Jenkins, H (2004), The cultural logic of media convergence, International Journal of Cultural Studies v1, pp. 33–43  Accessed: 24/08/12

MAS110 Lecture, Week One: Introduction by Sarah Keith

MAS110 Lecture, Week Two: Digital Convergence by Sarah Keith

MAS110 Lecture, Week Three: Music Video by Guest Lecturer, by Dr. Liz Giuffre

Miller, V, 2008, Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies: New Media, Networking and Phatic Culture: Accessed: 31/08/12

Australian Channel V homepage:  Accessed: 25/08/12

Online Music Video: “Battle Scars” by Guy Sebastian feat Lupe Fiasco.  Accessed: 30/08/12

[1] MAS110 Lecture, Week One: Introduction by Sarah Keith
[2] Jenkins, H (2004), The cultural logic of media convergence, International Journal of Cultural Studies v1, pp. 33–43 Accessed: 24/08/12
[3] MAS110 Lecture, Week Two: Digital Convergence by Sarah Keith
[4] Jenkins, H, 2006, Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide, NY University Press
[5] Business Insider: “What has replaced my iPhone.” Accessed: 21/08/12
[6] Online Music Video: “Battle Scars” by Guy Sebastian feat Lupe Fiasco. Accessed: 30/08/12
[7] MAS110 Lecture, Week Three: Music Video by Guest Lecturer, by Dr. Liz Giuffre
[8] MAS110 Lecture, Week Three: Music Video by Guest Lecturer, by Dr. Liz Giuffre
[9] MAS110 Lecture, Week Three: Music Video by Guest Lecturer, by Dr. Liz Giuffre
[11] Australian Channel V homepage: Accessed: 25/08/12
[12] Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies: New Media, Networking and Phatic Culture by Vincent Miller, 2008
[13] Jenkins, H (2004), The cultural logic of media convergence, International Journal of Cultural Studies v1, pp. 33–43  Accessed: 24/08/12
[14] Australian music television show ‘Rage’ homepage: Accessed: 23/08/12
[15] Jenkins, H, 2006, Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide: NY University Press

42248515 MAS 110 Essay 1

MAS 110.  Convergent Media Essay.

With the developing of the technology, the digital media are having a huge evolution in nowadays. More and more new technology appears in our daily life. Those media platform almost have one common feature, all of those new media are affected by the media convergent. In the first part of this article, I will introduce the media convergence in our daily life, and in the rest of the article, I will discuss the phenomenon of the digital media convergence as the essential factor to the appeal of the advantage and new media.

The media convergence, which first layout by Ithiel de Sola Pool in his book Technologies of freedom, is the merge of different media platforms. As Jerkin defined, the media convergence is the flow of content across multiple media platforms. (Jerkin, 2006) The convergence is all around us – smartphones with video, radio and the Internet, radio over TV platforms and the Internet and TV over mobile platforms including digital radio, and the Internet, all facilitated by the move to digital technologies. (Dwyer, 2010) The increasing of the new media appears in our daily life in recent years, the XBOX, the smartphone, the handheld, the iPad, the kindle, all of those products bring us such a special experience. The increasing numbers of the new media users bring the huge economic benefits to the companies, which will stimulate the development of the new media. Nowadays, take the smartphone for instance, unlike few years ago, the smartphone is no longer a platform that could just make a phone call or send the message, this platform now include the map, music and video player, the game platform, the internet, the e-book reader and almost everything that relate to our daily life. The competition of the smartphone is actually the competition of the better convergence of the multiple media platform. This means the evolution of the new media technology will continues its developing in the following years. However, not everyone could adapt to the evolution like this, such as Jenkins, they still prefer to use a cellphone, a real cellphone that without other multiple functions. Some of the product, such as John’s phone, release an ‘anti-new media’ cellphone, and got the well received by the users. It shows that how popular is the new media using in nowadays on the other hand. As Wilken and Sinclair, the mobile phone has been described by advertisers as the ‘next great conduit between consumers and advertisers. (Rowan & Sinclair, 2009)

To discuss the contribution that the media convergence brings to the new media, there is no doubt that the internet is the place that most effected by the media convergence. With the increasing number of the video website, such as Youtube, the MTV online, the audience found that they could not only watch what they want on the television. The media convergence brings them more choices on the communication network. In Graham Meikle and Sherman Young’s book: Media Converge: Network Digital Media in Everyday Life, they argue that the media convergence can be understood into 4 parts, which are the technological, the industrial, the social and the textual. The textual part, which are the re-use and the remix of media into what has been termed a model that named ‘Transmedia’, where stories and media content are dispersed across the multiple media platforms, bring us the special experience on the YouTube, or other media platforms. And the increasing number of the user of the social network media makes the developing of the website such as Facebook, Twitter, or the Micro-Blog in China. This social part makes that social website become an essential part in our daily life. With the base of those social networks, the information explosion becomes a normal phenomenon on the Internet. One real-world example is the viral video. The viral video is a video that become popular by sharing on the social website such as Facebook, Twitter or YouTube, it could bring the huge increasing amount of the viewers. The video, the advertising of the Old Spice, is the great example for this phenomenon. The success of the video is not only brings the high visibility to the Old Spice, also brings the high economic benefits to the company. This is not the only issue that the viral video that could bring the economic benefits, most of the movie company, began to use YouTube to publicize their trailer, such as the Mission: Impossible, the Dark Knight, Prometheus, all those trailer got the highly attention on the YouTube. And some video, such as KNOY 2012, the movie got 50,000,000 viewer in the first week, this platform makes this documentaries got the unprecedented attention.

This article introduces the media convergence, and its contribution to the new media. There is no doubt that the media convergence brings a huge contribute to the advantage and new media. The media convergence is an essential step in the developing of the media, and as Jerkin suggest, the old media will never die. And this kind of convergence brings us a new way on the advertising. As we could see, the successful of the Old Spice, clearly shows that the advantage of this way of propaganda. More and more companies began to use the social website to spread their products. The appears of the advantage and new media, not only bring the huge economic benefit in the business area, also they makes the communication become more convenient. With the increasing of digital media technology, the advantage and new media will bring more special experience to us in such a long time.


Dwyer, T. (2010) Media Convergence, McGraw Hill, Berksire, pp 1-23

G Meikle and S Young, (2011) Media Convergence: Networked Digital Media in Everyday Life 

Jenkins, H. (2006) Convergence Culture, New York, New YorkUniversity Press, pp 1-24.

Sinclair, John and Wilken, Rowan (2009) 'Waiting for the kiss of life : mobile media and advertising' Convergence: the journal of research into new media, vol 15 no 5 pp 427 – 445


Assessment 1 Digital Media Convergence
Max Chen

Discuss the phenomenon of digital media convergence in relation to one of the following: Advertising & New Media or Music Video Online.

Case Study: Gangnam Style
 ‘Media Convergence is the process whereby new technologies are accommodated by existing media and communication industries and cultures.’ Dwyer states this term as the adaption and merging together of media. 

Gangnam Style by Psy is the latest music video sensation which has gotten viral globally. As of this essay, the video has climbed to 78Million Views on YouTube and rising every single day by an average of 2.5 million views. This is a staggering amount considering this video is not even in English, yet it has been a hit in none Korean speaking countries such as America and causing chain reactions of other user submitted videos such as flash mobs and multiple parodies all over the world. 
"The original MV of Gangnam Style by Psy"

The rise in popularity of Gangnam style has been due to many factors.
One of the phenomenon associated with the viral spread is the rapid sharing available for the music video, Dwyer mentions ‘the ability of consumers to obtain multiple services on a single platform or obtain any given service on multiple platforms or devices.’ Gangnam Style music video (M/V) is available to view across media platforms. Although it is mainly streamed on YouTube, the video has be covered on CNN in America, broadcasted on Radio on Nova 96.9, tweeted on twitter by multiple celebrities and shared via multiple social media networks. 

 ‘Gangnam Style’ was never intended for audiences out of Korea. None English viewers have no idea what the Rapper Psy is singing about but from translations we find that behind the catchy dance beat the lyrics have a greater meaning. There is  a subtle message about wealth, class, and value in South Korean society. Rapper Psy's lyrics revealed a hidden message aimed to satire to the huge wealth inequality in Korea, the excessive consumption and pointing out the ridiculousness of the materialism surrounding many Koreans.

 For Audiences that are none Korean, YouTube members comments the music as absolutely 'random', some say unexpected, fresh and so bad that it is good. Gangnam Style is so different to traditional music videos it has create a whole new category from itself. Online bloggers joked that Psy is the love child of Kim Jong Il and Lady Gaga and is hooked by the original yet simple dance style.


Hilderbrand,L comments on the fact YouTube videos are popular via word of mouth- which in internet era is email links, blogs etc.
Dwyer mentions 'The rising popularity of social networking sites...... allowing multitasking of interaction.'
The huge success of this Music Video was explained by Psy as the 'tidal wave of tweets' on tweeter and mass public sharing on social networks.
The American rapper T-Pain was retweeted 2,400 times when he wrote "Words cannot even describe how amazing this video is."Other celebrities and fans include Britney Spears, Katy Perry and Vanessa Hudgens. To further promote the video fans have created Facebook pages and groups and even organised flash mobs of the Music.

 Tweets by celebrities

 Flash mob in Sydney's Martin Place, Gangnam Style has captivated many around the world.

Mundy, J suggest that the interest in popular music has given new ways of thinking to popular culture.
Gangnam Style have evolved to far more than just a catchy music video. The term 'Gangnam Style' is now linked by many to phases to suggest doing things completely "different". Gangnam Style dance moves are the current trend with multiple parodies, flash mobs, tutorial on YouTube, with some Nightclubs featuring Gangnam Style as an event.


From all the examples listed the viral success of gangnam style can be attributed to new technologies, youtube, itunes and the streaming of online Music Videos. The ability to share the video is emphasized by Hilderbrand, L "people like to share experiences." Experiences such as reaction video to first watching Gangnam style, Parodies / copying the dance moves, attending Psy's live concert, taking part in flash mobs are all ways everyone and interact and be part of the Gangnam Style frenzy.
Gangnam style certainly reflects a different, exciting culture and flashy dance moves that challenges what people expect in normal music videos.

Oppa Gangnam Style

Reading from the MAS110 Unit Reader
·         Jenkins, H. (2006) Convergence Culture, New York, New York University Press. 

Recommended  reading list
·         Hilderbrand, L. (2007) 'Youtube: Where Cultural Memory and Copyright Converge', Film Quarterly, Vol 61. 

Additional Sources
·         Mundy, J (1999) ‘Popular Music On Screen: From Hollywood Musical to Music Video’ Manchester University
        Fisher, M (Aug 23 2012): Gangnam Style, Dissected: The Subversive Message Within South Korea's Music Video Sensation
·         Original Music Video
·         Parodies
·         Reaction videos
·         Flash Mobs